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    Porting - The basics

    Porting:

    The process of cylinder porting is a funny paradox. The people in the market to buy it are looking for information and the people in the market of selling it are hiding information on porting. So much myth and misinformation is associated with this complex machining and metal finishing process. Yet the tooling is easily available and the design of the ports is actually quite straightforward with resources like computer design programs. This article is an overview of how porting is performed and how it can benefit your performance demands.

    Two-Stroke Principles

    Although a two-stroke engine has fewer moving parts than a four-stroke engine, a two-stroke is a complex engine with different phases taking place in the crankcase and in the cylinder bore at the same time. This is necessary because a two-stroke engine completes a power cycle in only 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation, compared to a four-stroke engine, which requires 720 degrees of crankshaft rotation to complete one power cycle. Two-stroke engines aren't as efficient as four-stroke engines, meaning that they don't retain as much air as they draw in through the intake. Some of the air is lost out the exhaust pipe. If a two-stroke engine could retain the same percentage of air, they would be twice as powerful as a four-stroke engine because they produce twice as many power strokes in the same number of crankshaft revolutions. The following is an explanation of the basic operation of the two-stroke engine.

    1. Starting with the piston at top dead center (TDC 0 degrees) ignition has occurred and the gasses in the combustion chamber are expanding and pushing down the piston. This pressurizes the crankcase causing the reed valve to close. At about 90 degrees after TDC the exhaust port opens ending the power stroke. A pressure wave of hot expanding gasses flows down the exhaust pipe. The blow-down phase has started and will end when the transfer ports open. The pressure in the cylinder must blow-down to below the pressure in the crankcase in order for the unburned mixture gasses to flow out the transfer ports during the scavenging phase.
    2. 2.Now the transfer ports are uncovered at about 120 degrees after TDC. The scavenging phase has begun. Meaning that the unburned mixture gasses are flowing out of the transfers and merging together to form a loop. The gasses travel up the backside of the cylinder and loops around in the cylinder head to scavenge out the burnt mixture gasses from the previous power stroke. It is critical that the burnt gasses are scavenged from the combustion chamber, to make room for as much unburned gasses as possible. That is the key to making more power in a two-stroke engine. The more unburned gasses you can squeeze into the combustion chamber, the more the engine will produce. Now the loop of unburned mixture gasses have traveled into the exhaust pipe's header section. Most of the gasses aren't lost because a compression pressure wave has reflected from the baffle cone of the exhaust pipe, to pack the unburned gasses back into the cylinder before the piston closes off the exhaust port.
    3. Now the crankshaft has rotated past bottom dead center (BDC 180 degrees) and the piston is on the upstroke. The compression wave reflected from the exhaust pipe is packing the unburned gasses back in through the exhaust port as the piston closes off the port the start the compression phase. In the crankcase the pressure is below atmospheric producing a vacuum and a fresh charge of unburned mixture gasses is flowing through the reed valve into the crankcase.
    4. The unburned mixture gasses are compresses and just before the piston reaches TDC, the ignition system discharges a spark causing the gasses to ignite and start the process all over again.


    What is Porting?

    Porting is a metal finishing process performed to the passageways of a two-stroke cylinder and crankcases, that serves to match the surface texture, shapes and sizes of port ducts, and the timing and angle aspects of the port windows that interface with the cylinder bore. The port windows determine the opening and closing timing of the intake, exhaust, blowdown, and transfer phases that take place in the cylinder. These phases must be coordinated to work with other engine components such as the intake and exhaust system. The intake and exhaust systems are designed to take advantage of the finite amplitude waves that travel back and forth from the atmosphere. Porting coordinates the opening of the intake, exhaust, and transfer ports to maximize the tuning affect of the exhaust pipe and intake system. Generally speaking porting for more mid-range acceleration is intended for use with stock intake and exhaust systems.

    Terminology

    These are some common words and terms associated with porting.

    Ports
    Passageways cast and machined into the cylinder.

    Ducts
    The tube shape that comprises the ports.

    Windows
    The part of the port that interfaces the cylinder bore.

    Exhaust Port
    The large port where the burnt gasses exit the cylinder.

    Exhaust Bridge
    The center divider used on triangular shaped exhaust ports.

    Sub-Exhaust Ports
    The minor exhaust ports positioned on each side of the main exhaust port.

    Triple Ports
    One main bridgeless exhaust port with one sub exhaust port on each side.

    Front Transfers
    Transfer ports link the crankcase to the cylinder bore. The front set (2) of transfers is located closest to the exhaust port.

    Rear Transfers
    The rear set of transfers is located closest to the intake port.

    Auxiliary Transfers
    Some cylinders have a minor set of transfers located between the front and rear sets.

    Transfer Port Area Ratio
    The area of the crankcase side of the transfers divided by the area of the port window.

    Boost Ports
    The port or ports that are located opposite of the exhaust port and in-line with the intake port. These ports are usually by-pass ports for the intake or piston and sharply angled upwards to help direct the gas flow during scavenging.

    Port-Time-Area
    A mathematical computation of the area of a port, divided by the displacement of the cylinder, and multiplied by the time that the port is open. The higher an engine revs the more time-area the port needs. The higher the piston speed the less time available for the gas to flow through the port.

    Duration
    The number of crankshaft angle rotational degrees that a port is open.

    Opening Timing
    The crank angle degree when the piston uncovers the port.

    Crank Angle
    Measured in units of degrees of crankshaft rotation. On a two-stroke engine there are a total of 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation in one power cycle.

    Port Side angle
    The side angle of a port measured at the window, from the centerline of the bore with the exhaust port being the starting point (0).

    Port Roof angle
    The angle of the top of the port at the window.

    Port Height
    The distance from the top of the cylinder to the opening point of the port.

    Top Dead Center (TDC)
    The top of the piston's stroke.

    Bottom Dead Center (BDC)
    The bottom of the piston's stroke.

    Chordal Width
    The effective width of a port, measured from the straightest point between sides.

    BMEP
    Brake Mean Effective Pressure.

    Loop Scavenging
    Scavenging is the process of purging the combustion chamber of burnt gasses. Loop scavenging refers to the flow pattern generated by the transfer port duct shapes and port entry angles and area. The gasses are directed to merge together and travel up the intake side of the bore into the head and loop around towards the exhaust port.

    Blow-Down
    This is the time-area of the exhaust port between the opening time of the exhaust and the transfers. When the exhaust port opens the pressure blows down, ideally to below the rising pressure of the gasses in the transfer ports. Blow-down is measured in degrees of crank rotation and time-area.
    Effective Stroke
    The distance from TDC to the exhaust port height. The longer the effective stroke the better the low-end power.
    Primary Compression Ratio
    The compression ratio of the crankcase.
    Secondary Compression Ratio
    The compression ratio of the cylinder head.
    Compression Waves
    Pressure waves that reflects from the end of the intake or exhaust system and return to the engine.
    Expansion Waves
    Pressure waves that travel from the engine and out to the atmosphere.

    Tools of the Trade

    There are two main types of tools used in porting, measuring and grinding. Here is an overview of how these tools are used.

    Measuring
    The basic measuring tools include a dial caliper, an inside divider, and an assortment of angle gauges. The caliper is used to measure the port height, the divider is used to measure the chordal width of the port, and the angle gauges are used to measure the roof and side angles of the ports. Calipers and dividers are available from places like Sears or industrial supply stores. Angle gauges are fashioned from cardboard and specific to individual cylinders.

    Grinding
    The most common grinding tools are electric powered. They consist of a motor, speed control, flexible drive shaft, tool handle, and tool bits. The power of these motors ranges from 1/5th to 1/4th HP with a maximum rpm of 15,000. Popular manufacturers include Foredom, Dremel, and Dumor. Each company sells a full compliment of accessories for all sorts of hobbyist activities. The most popular source for cylinder porting tools and accessories is CC Specialty in Tennessee (1-800-762-6995).

    The tool handles and bits are the secret to porting. There are two types of tool handles; straight and right angle. The straight tool handles are used for machining the port ducts. The right angle tool handles are used to gain access to the port windows from the cylinder bore. Over the years I've tested hundreds of different tool bits and arrived at some simple materials and patterns for finishing the different surfaces of a cylinder. The materials of a cylinder range from aluminum as the base casting material, to a cast iron or steel liner, or nickel composite plated cylinder bores. Here are the basic tool bits used for porting; tungsten carbide works best for aluminum, steel, and cast iron, stones are best for grinding through nickel composite. The tungsten carbide tool bits are available in hundreds of different patterns and shapes. The diamond pattern is the best performing and the shape of the bit should match the corresponding shape of the port. Stones, or mounted points as they are termed in industrial supply catalogs, are available in different shapes and grits. The grits are graded by the color of the stones. Gray being the most course and red being the most fine. The finer the grit the faster it wears but the smoother the finish.

    Making Ports Bigger

    Generally speaking, if you're trying to raise the peak rpm of the powerband with an aftermarket exhaust system of clutching on a snowmobile, the ports will probably need to be machined in this manner; widen the transfer ports for more time-area and raise the exhaust port for more duration. Most OEM cylinders have exhaust ports that are cast to the maximum safe limit of chordal width. Often times widening the exhaust port will cause accelerated piston and ring wear. In some cases the port will be widened so far that it breaks through into the water jacket. The internal casting on some cylinders is so thin that it prevents tuners from widening the exhaust port. Transfer ports should be widened with respect to the piston ring centering pins. The ports should have a safe margin of 2mm for the centering pin. The height of the transfer ports is based on the time-area of the exhaust port above the transfer port opening height. That is called Blow-down. The exhaust port has to evacuate the cylinder bore of burnt gasses before the transfers open, otherwise backflow will occur into the crankcase. That can cause a variety of dangerous problems like blown crank seals, chipped or burnt reeds, or in extreme circumstances a fire that can extend out of the carb. The angles of the transfers are important too. Generally speaking when the side angles direct the gasses to the intake side of the cylinder, or the roof angles are a steep angle 15-25 degrees), the porting will be better for trail-riding. When the side angles direct the gasses to the center of the cylinder and the roof angles are nearly flat (0-5 degrees), the porting will be better suited to drag or lake racing.


    Making Ports Smaller

    Ports are purposely made smaller for several reasons. One or more of the ports could have been designed too big, or a well-meaning tuner may have been overzealous, or a customer may have asked for more that he could handle. There are performance gains to be had from smaller ports, for high altitude compensation or for more punch for trail and snowcross riding. Simply using a thinner base gasket or by tunring-down the cylinder base on a lathe. Cometic Gasket Co. in Mentor Ohio makes graded gaskets from .25 to 1.5mm and even custom base plates for stroker engines. (www.cometic.com) Another method is by welding the perimeter of the port, although that entails replating the bore. Transfer and intake ports can be made smaller with the use of epoxy. Brand name products like DURO Master Mend or Weld-Stick are chemical resistant, easy to mold to fit, and can withstand temperatures of 400F. Master Mend is a liquid product and Weld-Stick is a semi-dry putty material. The epoxy can be applied to the roof of the ports to retard the timing and reduce the duration. It can be applied to the sides of the transfers to reduce the time-area, and it can be applied to the transfer ducts to boost the primary compression ratio (crankcase volume).

    Porting for Big Bores

    WISECO offers big bore piston kits for most popular snowmobiles. (www.wiseco.com) The average increase in displacement is 50cc per cylinder. This requires that the cylinder be over-bored 4-8mm. Because the ports enter the cylinder bore at angles, when the bore size is increased all the ports drop in height. The steeper the port angles the greater the port height will drop. Lower port heights mean retarded timing and reduced duration. The exhaust port gets narrower and the transfers get wider. A larger displacement cylinder will require more port-time-area. Normally the exhaust port needs to be raised higher than stock to compensate for the compression ratio. If you're adding a set of performance pipes at the same time as the big bore, you'll need to compensate the port timing to get the best gains from the pipes. It's a complicated thing. Sometimes tuners use thicker base gaskets to compensate for big bores, but ideally the port-time-area needs to be calculated before any serious porting changes are made. If you are strictly trail riding at high altitude, you can just have the cylinders bored and replated because the porting will inherently change to suit that type of application.

    Big Bore Specs Link (coming soon!)

    Computer Design Software

    The best-kept secret in high performance tuning is the use of computer design software. These products became popular about six years ago when Tom Turner adapted the SAE programming code and added in his own empirical data from his career as a motorcycle drag racer and tuner. Tom's products are named TSR software (www.tsrsoftware.com) and available in MS-DOS format for PCs. The programs cover individual engine components. The most popular program for porting is PORTTIME 2000 and it sells for $200. It features target specs for all sorts of vehicles including snowmobiles. Basically a tuner types in engine spec dimensions like the bore and stroke plus all the individual port measurements. The program runs mathematical calculations in order to provide a simulation of how the porting changes will affect the engine's powerband. TSR's programs will get a tuner 90% to the engines potential. The next level of programs includes 1D and 3D gas dynamics simulators. Dynomation is a 1D simulator that sells for about $500 (www.audietech.com). It enables tuners to combine all the engine components together to simulate dyno runs on the computer so they can save time machining metal and swapping parts on actual dyno runs. Dr. Gordon Blair programmed the 3D simulator named Virtual Two-Stroke, the most well know two-stroke engine researcher. His program is marketed through Optimum (www.optimum-power.com) through lease programs. Priced at $12,000 a year, it's intended for use by engine manufacturers.


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  2. #2
    deganduss
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    Look like copy & phase
    Not real experience

     

     
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    Look like copy & phase
    Not real experience
    Nvm ma even its not real experience, if its the truth, i think can liao lor...

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    deganduss
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    Look like copy & phase
    Not real experience
    Nvm ma even its not real experience, if its the truth, i think can liao lor...
    How do u know it's true if u don't experience it yourself

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    How do u know it's true if u don't experience it yourself
    maybe is from his friend?

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    deganduss
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    How do u know it's true if u don't experience it yourself
    maybe is from his friend?
    He's reading, I've done it

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    He's reading, I've done it

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    He's reading, I've done it

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    Never mind, im just wonder what you mean by u've done it, he is reading....

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    Never mind, im just wonder what you mean by u've done it, he is reading....
    What is written hav been done in S'pore long ago

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    This was from a website in UK which they were racing using 2stroke bike. Got this off from them long time ago coz i wan 2 noe more abt the fact abt porting since i was riding rs250 that time. This piece of info is for someone who is interested in them. If u r not u can choose to ignore them since u tink its juz crap. True or not is up for them to decided after all i juz sharing some info i got.


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    anyone know which shop is doing the porting works for motorshops? i believe motorshops also bring the engine down to some particular ppl to do porting right?
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    Tried asking a few mech ard last time and they wun gif a clue..
    If we noe where can get it done den we can bypass the motorshop liao thus save $ on reboring, porting and etc.. hopefully someone in this forum got some ideas where it can be done.


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    deganduss
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    Tried asking a few mech ard last time and they wun gif a clue..
    If we noe where can get it done den we can bypass the motorshop liao thus save $ on reboring, porting and etc.. hopefully someone in this forum got some ideas where it can be done.
    Try talk to Ah Hai at Ban Hock Hin at Rangoon Rd (talk 2 him privately) Reboring is easy, any engineering shop can do, but porting take a lot of patience as u need to do alot of grinding within the barrel/port hold. Simple porting can b done by raising the exhaust/transfer port by 2mm. But this can cause high rev. Usually he will c the piston & barrel b 4 grinding.
    Can oso try asking Kenny Fatt at PG, he knows ppl in JB doing porting.

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    ZZR-Pilot
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    Unlike fitting an aftermarket exhaust, re-jetting or switching sprocket ratios, port grinding is irreversible. Vital to only let someone who knows what he's doing to handle stuff like this if you don't want to burn a hole in your pocket. Unless you've got a spare engine block on hand.

    Me, I'd stay away from any permanent mods. Easier to maintain & less headaches.

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    I was just thinking, when servicing the valves of 4 strokers, we are suppose to port the valve seats as well. however, there is a certain tapper angle involved in this porting. Just wondering where we can get this done also...

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    I was just thinking, when servicing the valves of 4 strokers, we are suppose to port the valve seats as well. however, there is a certain tapper angle involved in this porting. Just wondering where we can get this done also...
    That's called valve seat grinding. Usually done when your valve koyak and wore out the seat. Coz when you install a new valve, the seat must be finely ground out with a lapping tool to ensure that the new valve seats properly (otherwise the valve won't be able to dissipate heat into the cylinder head and burn out).

    Porting on 4-strokers refers to grinding out the intake and exhaust ports to improve gas flow in and out of the combustion chamber. Totally different.

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    That's called valve seat grinding. Usually done when your valve koyak and wore out the seat. Coz when you install a new valve, the seat must be finely ground out with a lapping tool to ensure that the new valve seats properly (otherwise the valve won't be able to dissipate heat into the cylinder head and burn out).

    Porting on 4-strokers refers to grinding out the intake and exhaust ports to improve gas flow in and out of the combustion chamber. Totally different.
    Yup, any idea where grinding can be done? DIY can be done by using the original valve stem and a grinding agent but a bit hard to do it evenly.

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    Porting should always be done by an experienced and trusted mechs, there are only a handful of them in Singapore but an abundant pool in JB. Make sure you go to a shop that's proven it's calibre coz you'll end up regretting what is done if you aren't satisfied. The most popular form of porting is the block porting, although it accelerates your fuel consumption and you'd have to set the timing and change to bigger plugs but if it's done properly the results are wonderful. The other option is skimming.
    All that is gold does not glitter, Not all who wander are lost; The old that is strong does not wither, Deep roots are not reached by the frost. From the ashes a fire shall be woken, A light from the shadows shall spring; Renewed shall be blade that was broken: The crownless again shall be king.

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    Yup, any idea where grinding can be done? DIY can be done by using the original valve stem and a grinding agent but a bit hard to do it evenly.
    Wah, if you're handy with the grinding paste and know your way around the cylinder head then can try at home lor.

    Here, most reputable big bike shops will be able to do it. It's a relatively common thing on this side of the causeway because all the ZXR250s in Malaysia have a nasty habit of screwing up the valves & valve seats.

    Dunno about SG. Err.. your ST11 valves koyak already meh??

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    Wah, if you're handy with the grinding paste and know your way around the cylinder head then can try at home lor.

    Here, most reputable big bike shops will be able to do it. It's a relatively common thing on this side of the causeway because all the ZXR250s in Malaysia have a nasty habit of screwing up the valves & valve seats.

    Dunno about SG. Err.. your ST11 valves koyak already meh??
    Just curious in case I need to do it.

     

     
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    awesome !

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    as for 4 stroke engines, seat grinding can b done CNC in spore.as for 2 strokes, porting,re- sleevin w/o sleeve kit... ...all can b done in spore too.jus dat the people doin it do not advertise cos its labourous and time consuming yet un-lucrative... wish to noe more pls feel free to drop a mail to bzbubbb@yahoo.com.sg

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    How do u know it's true if u don't experience it yourself
    true... manzzz

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    The other option is skimming.
    Porting is an art & a skill with GREAT patience needed. I have some clue, how & what can be done but with butter fingers holding a port drill and absolutely NO patience.... SIGH!!

    I used to know a GREAT 2 stroke porter, his masterpiece (Coupled with a skilled rider) went to sweep most events they took part in PG races. Unfortunately, the last time I saw him was in the early 90s!! DOUBLE SIGH!!! Anybody else know of any good porter?

    By the way, skimming is an ABSOLUTE NO NO for 4 stroke motors!!! Picture your 4 stroke engine with overhead cams & the chain. Now skim the head and you'll end up with a lower head, overall shorter engine (abeit by only a little). For example (ONLY), for every rotation of your cam chain, you'd get a full 4 stroke cycle. With a skimmed head, you'd end up with a full 4 stroke cycle minus the "missing" height. Operating at several thousand rpm all of the time, almost daily... it would be asking for a valve/piston love meeting in the near future.

  26. #26
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    isnt skimming gonna increase the compression ratio thus improves thermal efficiency?
    It does but at the expense of screwing the cam/crank timing after prolonged usage for 4 stroke engines.

  27. #27
    FireSpitter
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    screwing the crank timming?
    if they are marked before stripping, will there still a problem?
    I don't know of any website that has a picture to describe this problem but try to picture this:-

    An inverted triangle with the point A (Crankshaft) being below. Point B & C (Intake & exhaust cam) are above. Now after skimming, the distance between cam & crank is reduced. The after effects will not be noticeable in the near future but I hope you can picture what has happened after a few months of use (Especially if you cover long distances).

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    i have a vague recollcetion that this only plague those machine using Cam Gears namely certain honda's model.

    It'll affect any 4 stroke engine whether cam gear & cam chain as it affects crank/cam distance.

  29. #29
    justmelah
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    chain driven cam timing system, always have a tensioner, to cover wear and tear ,over time for the stock timing chain...

    i think u r mistaken that skimming involves trimming the head ridiculously... the varying 'space' involve would be easily offset by the tensioner...

    Timing will never by affected.... and if the screwing of the deck height is AN ABSOLUTE NO NO, then figure out why OEM factories offers head kits and skimmed gaskets for the 4t machines...

    and i am blurred with ur statements of 'absolute no no' and 'after prolonged usage '

    cheers


    By the way, skimming is an ABSOLUTE NO NO for 4 stroke motors!!! Picture your 4 stroke engine with overhead cams & the chain. Now skim the head and you'll end up with a lower head, overall shorter engine (abeit by only a little). For example (ONLY), for every rotation of your cam chain, you'd get a full 4 stroke cycle. With a skimmed head, you'd end up with a full 4 stroke cycle minus the "missing" height. Operating at several thousand rpm all of the time, almost daily... it would be asking for a valve/piston love meeting in the near future.

  30. #30
    justmelah
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    anyone got lobang for 2t twins' cylinder heads matching and squish setting?

    and reboring to be at least 0.1mm precision? Preferly with nicka or nico plating...

    Thanks and regards.


    ps:u can pm me the details

  31. #31
    FireSpitter
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    chain driven cam timing system, always have a tensioner, to cover wear and tear ,over time for the stock timing chain...

    i think u r mistaken that skimming involves trimming the head ridiculously... the varying 'space' involve would be easily offset by the tensioner...

    Timing will never by affected.... and if the screwing of the deck height is AN ABSOLUTE NO NO, then figure out why OEM factories offers head kits and skimmed gaskets for the 4t machines...

    and i am blurred with ur statements of 'absolute no no' and 'after prolonged usage '
    Hi there, I was expecting some objecting comments on this issue as they have surfaced time & time again particularly on engine rebuild forums.

    My answers to your opinions would be as follows:-

    (1) Tensioner - I have excluded the tensioner in the discussion to avoid more confusion as it has no bearing in the skimming issue. The tensioner only effects drive slack ratio, and not drive ratio. With all factors being equal, having a loose chain or the correct chain will not affect drive ratio although the drive slack ratio between the 2 chains are different.

    (2) Head gaskets - The availability of thicker & thinner headgaskets allow non factory racers to tune their bikes accordingly without having to resort to irreversible options like skimming the head. The options of thinner/thicker gaskets will allow them to tune their bikes accordingly to the track's characteristics. It would be really expensive if racers were to have at least one different head for every different weekend track they race, wouldn't it?

    I could give you some quotes from publications if you're still not sure about what I'm talking about or you could try getting an answer from professional race engine builders (Example: PAECO @ www.paeco.com). Ask for one of their catalogs which extensively explains do's & dont's on engine modifications. This catalog is just one of the several publications I remember explaining on the downsides of skimming.

     

     
  32. #32
    FireSpitter
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    http://www.hotbricks.org.au/files/kentcam.txt

    "Also a point worth remembering, is that any O.H.C. engine that has had the compression ratio raised by skimming the cylinder head, will automatically have had the valve timing altered, Because the effective distance between the crank and the cam has been reduced, adjusting the belt tensioner to take out the slack. will alter the position of the cam pulley in relation to the crank."


    http://user.tninet.se/~lvn930t/tuning.htm

    "One thing to remember when skimming is that the camshaft timing is altered."


    http://www.eng-tips.com/gviewthread.cfm/le...id/71/qid/33780

    "Trying to rectify the above situation by skimming the block but not taking into account the fact that the cam timing has now changed"


    Go to www.paeco.com and ask for their catalog. Dunno about their 2003 catalog but their previous ones, had a very extensive explanation of why skimming is not the choice of building a race engine. Their recommendation was to get reprofiled high compression pistons instead.

  33. #33
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    Sorry if I had misled you. I don't understand the engine as much as I would like too but I feel we could share a few pointers over a cup of coffee. Read some of your posts and feel I could learn some from you. Especially since I have only picked up riding 1 year ago after stopping for 7 years! Lost touch with a lot of stuff!

    My uneducated answer to your question. Adjustable cam sprockets benefits mostly racers (My opinion) as they are used to adjust the degree of the cams with great ease since the adjustment screws are easily accessible at the side of the sprockets. With every practice, the sprockets can be adjusted with minimum fuss, to obtain the "perfect" combo to suit the track/racer. That's all I know. Regarding whether it's inaccurate coming out of the factory, that I'm really not too sure.

  34. #34
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    i see i see, so perhaps coffee will be great.
    Yo guy! Check your pm. Got a problem and need your advice!

  35. #35
    justmelah
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    i think we guys are thinking too deep...

    given the constant tooth on the cam pulley and gear from crank, a standard chain that have been checked for wear and elongation, i dun see a hiccup in in the timing.

    e.g, a bicycle with a front chainring and a rear sprocket being driven by a linked chain. then u go shorten the swingarm, the chain becomes slack, but the rear derailuer or a chain tensioner will tighten up the chain, the driven ratio is still the same....

    given a correct alignment on the cam/crank timing, and non obscene skimming, i still dun see any problems...

    the info on : http://www.eng-tips.com/gviewthread.cfm/le...id/71/qid/33780

    "Trying to rectify the above situation by skimming the block but not taking into account the fact that the cam timing has now changed"


    The info that u got, is for a big bore or stroking conversion... of cos, the timing will be altered..

    and; http://www.hotbricks.org.au/files/kentcam.txt

    "Also a point worth remembering, is that any O.H.C. engine that has had the compression ratio raised by skimming the cylinder head, will automatically have had the valve timing altered, Because the effective distance between the crank and the cam has been reduced, adjusting the belt tensioner to take out the slack. will alter the position of the cam pulley in relation to the crank .

    The above is on the basic of a modern car or a duckduck cam belt carrier, the tensioning of the belt pull the cam pulley one side, thus one or few tooths misaligned against the crank, from the cam. Of cos it will be altered, if we follow the oem mark toothing. How about this, if we check and calculate the missed tooths, and adjust accordingly, and then tighten the belt manually? will the timing still be the same?

    coffee on il4 then....

    cheers

  36. #36
    FireSpitter
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    The above is on the basic of a modern car or a duckduck cam belt carrier, the tensioning of the belt pull the cam pulley one side, thus one or few tooths misaligned against the crank, from the cam. Of cos it will be altered, if we follow the oem mark toothing. How about this, if we check and calculate the missed tooths, and adjust accordingly, and then tighten the belt manually? will the timing still be the same?

    coffee on il4 then....

    cheers
    It wouldn't be the same. A cam sprocket has only a fixed number of tooths to spread over 360 degrees. Just take for example, by offset of maybe let say 3 degrees, it is directly in between 2 teeth, how? Without an adjustable cam pulley, it cannot be adjusted.

    Coffee on il4 sounds like a GREAT idea!! Where when??

  37. #37
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    I'm starting to suspect that this is a huge collaboration to rip me off
    Maybe you're right....

  38. #38
    deganduss
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    modification cost lot of $$$

  39. #39
    FireSpitter
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    Took me ages to find this article(Hidden in my storeroom).....


    A Common Error

    If you have an overhead cam engine, DON't try to raise the compression ratio by milling the head. The reason is that the cam is driven by a chain or belt connected to the crankshaft. When you mill material from the head, you decrease the distance between the crankshaft & cam gears, which throws the valve timing off. What you gain by the increased compression is lost many times over by the valve timing.

    Some pushrod engine heads can be milled to raise the compression ratio a moderate amount. The rule of the thumb is that you raise the compression approximately 1/10th of a point for each 0.010" milled off. Since many heads won't take more than .050" milling, the most you can usually expect to gain from this technique is 1/2 point increase in compression.

    The only reliable way to substantially increase compression ratio is to install higher compression pistons.

  40. #40
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    hi pple, after all being said, still u need to hands -on to know and gain experience. no point believin in wat article's or watever, it serve as a guide. there's diff. ways of doing things by every individual mach.

    ther's also reasons y porters stay very low-profile. we dont port 4 any tom.**** or harry just 4 money. those dat proclaim they do porting at bike shop r 2 earn ur money. da real porters do only 4 serious racers or teams wif gd $$ spaonsor. reputation iz very important to porters, reputation iz big $$ b/c iz not cheap, unlike those bike shop who do porting.

    we dont like to share trade secrets,skills and technique or it wouldn't b rare and the market will be flooded wif many 'wanna-be' porters . not to mention take our share of 'rice bowl'

    portin iz not easy to master, as 1 hav to take many factors pertainin to a bike ur workin on and experince. a ported bike will not hav as long a durability as stock. as itz not 4 everyday riding cond.

    my humble comments rd350,wolf400,tzr,lc,rxz,rg,x5,mbx,aprilia. yamaha black pirate.

  41. #41
    biker5777
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    Porting - The basics

    Porting:

    The process of cylinder porting is a funny paradox. The people in the market to buy it are looking for information and the people in the market of selling it are hiding information on porting. So much myth and misinformation is associated with this complex machining and metal finishing process. Yet the tooling is easily available and the design of the ports is actually quite straightforward with resources like computer design programs. This article is an overview of how porting is performed and how it can benefit your performance demands.

    Two-Stroke Principles

    Although a two-stroke engine has fewer moving parts than a four-stroke engine, a two-stroke is a complex engine with different phases taking place in the crankcase and in the cylinder bore at the same time. This is necessary because a two-stroke engine completes a power cycle in only 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation, compared to a four-stroke engine, which requires 720 degrees of crankshaft rotation to complete one power cycle. Two-stroke engines aren't as efficient as four-stroke engines, meaning that they don't retain as much air as they draw in through the intake. Some of the air is lost out the exhaust pipe. If a two-stroke engine could retain the same percentage of air, they would be twice as powerful as a four-stroke engine because they produce twice as many power strokes in the same number of crankshaft revolutions. The following is an explanation of the basic operation of the two-stroke engine.

    1. Starting with the piston at top dead center (TDC 0 degrees) ignition has occurred and the gasses in the combustion chamber are expanding and pushing down the piston. This pressurizes the crankcase causing the reed valve to close. At about 90 degrees after TDC the exhaust port opens ending the power stroke. A pressure wave of hot expanding gasses flows down the exhaust pipe. The blow-down phase has started and will end when the transfer ports open. The pressure in the cylinder must blow-down to below the pressure in the crankcase in order for the unburned mixture gasses to flow out the transfer ports during the scavenging phase.
    2. 2.Now the transfer ports are uncovered at about 120 degrees after TDC. The scavenging phase has begun. Meaning that the unburned mixture gasses are flowing out of the transfers and merging together to form a loop. The gasses travel up the backside of the cylinder and loops around in the cylinder head to scavenge out the burnt mixture gasses from the previous power stroke. It is critical that the burnt gasses are scavenged from the combustion chamber, to make room for as much unburned gasses as possible. That is the key to making more power in a two-stroke engine. The more unburned gasses you can squeeze into the combustion chamber, the more the engine will produce. Now the loop of unburned mixture gasses have traveled into the exhaust pipe's header section. Most of the gasses aren't lost because a compression pressure wave has reflected from the baffle cone of the exhaust pipe, to pack the unburned gasses back into the cylinder before the piston closes off the exhaust port.
    3. Now the crankshaft has rotated past bottom dead center (BDC 180 degrees) and the piston is on the upstroke. The compression wave reflected from the exhaust pipe is packing the unburned gasses back in through the exhaust port as the piston closes off the port the start the compression phase. In the crankcase the pressure is below atmospheric producing a vacuum and a fresh charge of unburned mixture gasses is flowing through the reed valve into the crankcase.
    4. The unburned mixture gasses are compresses and just before the piston reaches TDC, the ignition system discharges a spark causing the gasses to ignite and start the process all over again.


    What is Porting?

    Porting is a metal finishing process performed to the passageways of a two-stroke cylinder and crankcases, that serves to match the surface texture, shapes and sizes of port ducts, and the timing and angle aspects of the port windows that interface with the cylinder bore. The port windows determine the opening and closing timing of the intake, exhaust, blowdown, and transfer phases that take place in the cylinder. These phases must be coordinated to work with other engine components such as the intake and exhaust system. The intake and exhaust systems are designed to take advantage of the finite amplitude waves that travel back and forth from the atmosphere. Porting coordinates the opening of the intake, exhaust, and transfer ports to maximize the tuning affect of the exhaust pipe and intake system. Generally speaking porting for more mid-range acceleration is intended for use with stock intake and exhaust systems.

    Terminology

    These are some common words and terms associated with porting.

    Ports
    Passageways cast and machined into the cylinder.

    Ducts
    The tube shape that comprises the ports.

    Windows
    The part of the port that interfaces the cylinder bore.

    Exhaust Port
    The large port where the burnt gasses exit the cylinder.

    Exhaust Bridge
    The center divider used on triangular shaped exhaust ports.

    Sub-Exhaust Ports
    The minor exhaust ports positioned on each side of the main exhaust port.

    Triple Ports
    One main bridgeless exhaust port with one sub exhaust port on each side.

    Front Transfers
    Transfer ports link the crankcase to the cylinder bore. The front set (2) of transfers is located closest to the exhaust port.

    Rear Transfers
    The rear set of transfers is located closest to the intake port.

    Auxiliary Transfers
    Some cylinders have a minor set of transfers located between the front and rear sets.

    Transfer Port Area Ratio
    The area of the crankcase side of the transfers divided by the area of the port window.

    Boost Ports
    The port or ports that are located opposite of the exhaust port and in-line with the intake port. These ports are usually by-pass ports for the intake or piston and sharply angled upwards to help direct the gas flow during scavenging.

    Port-Time-Area
    A mathematical computation of the area of a port, divided by the displacement of the cylinder, and multiplied by the time that the port is open. The higher an engine revs the more time-area the port needs. The higher the piston speed the less time available for the gas to flow through the port.

    Duration
    The number of crankshaft angle rotational degrees that a port is open.

    Opening Timing
    The crank angle degree when the piston uncovers the port.

    Crank Angle
    Measured in units of degrees of crankshaft rotation. On a two-stroke engine there are a total of 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation in one power cycle.

    Port Side angle
    The side angle of a port measured at the window, from the centerline of the bore with the exhaust port being the starting point (0).

    Port Roof angle
    The angle of the top of the port at the window.

    Port Height
    The distance from the top of the cylinder to the opening point of the port.

    Top Dead Center (TDC)
    The top of the piston's stroke.

    Bottom Dead Center (BDC)
    The bottom of the piston's stroke.

    Chordal Width
    The effective width of a port, measured from the straightest point between sides.

    BMEP
    Brake Mean Effective Pressure.

    Loop Scavenging
    Scavenging is the process of purging the combustion chamber of burnt gasses. Loop scavenging refers to the flow pattern generated by the transfer port duct shapes and port entry angles and area. The gasses are directed to merge together and travel up the intake side of the bore into the head and loop around towards the exhaust port.

    Blow-Down
    This is the time-area of the exhaust port between the opening time of the exhaust and the transfers. When the exhaust port opens the pressure blows down, ideally to below the rising pressure of the gasses in the transfer ports. Blow-down is measured in degrees of crank rotation and time-area.
    Effective Stroke
    The distance from TDC to the exhaust port height. The longer the effective stroke the better the low-end power.
    Primary Compression Ratio
    The compression ratio of the crankcase.
    Secondary Compression Ratio
    The compression ratio of the cylinder head.
    Compression Waves
    Pressure waves that reflects from the end of the intake or exhaust system and return to the engine.
    Expansion Waves
    Pressure waves that travel from the engine and out to the atmosphere.

    Tools of the Trade

    There are two main types of tools used in porting, measuring and grinding. Here is an overview of how these tools are used.

    Measuring
    The basic measuring tools include a dial caliper, an inside divider, and an assortment of angle gauges. The caliper is used to measure the port height, the divider is used to measure the chordal width of the port, and the angle gauges are used to measure the roof and side angles of the ports. Calipers and dividers are available from places like Sears or industrial supply stores. Angle gauges are fashioned from cardboard and specific to individual cylinders.

    Grinding
    The most common grinding tools are electric powered. They consist of a motor, speed control, flexible drive shaft, tool handle, and tool bits. The power of these motors ranges from 1/5th to 1/4th HP with a maximum rpm of 15,000. Popular manufacturers include Foredom, Dremel, and Dumor. Each company sells a full compliment of accessories for all sorts of hobbyist activities. The most popular source for cylinder porting tools and accessories is CC Specialty in Tennessee (1-800-762-6995).

    The tool handles and bits are the secret to porting. There are two types of tool handles; straight and right angle. The straight tool handles are used for machining the port ducts. The right angle tool handles are used to gain access to the port windows from the cylinder bore. Over the years I've tested hundreds of different tool bits and arrived at some simple materials and patterns for finishing the different surfaces of a cylinder. The materials of a cylinder range from aluminum as the base casting material, to a cast iron or steel liner, or nickel composite plated cylinder bores. Here are the basic tool bits used for porting; tungsten carbide works best for aluminum, steel, and cast iron, stones are best for grinding through nickel composite. The tungsten carbide tool bits are available in hundreds of different patterns and shapes. The diamond pattern is the best performing and the shape of the bit should match the corresponding shape of the port. Stones, or mounted points as they are termed in industrial supply catalogs, are available in different shapes and grits. The grits are graded by the color of the stones. Gray being the most course and red being the most fine. The finer the grit the faster it wears but the smoother the finish.

    Making Ports Bigger

    Generally speaking, if you're trying to raise the peak rpm of the powerband with an aftermarket exhaust system of clutching on a snowmobile, the ports will probably need to be machined in this manner; widen the transfer ports for more time-area and raise the exhaust port for more duration. Most OEM cylinders have exhaust ports that are cast to the maximum safe limit of chordal width. Often times widening the exhaust port will cause accelerated piston and ring wear. In some cases the port will be widened so far that it breaks through into the water jacket. The internal casting on some cylinders is so thin that it prevents tuners from widening the exhaust port. Transfer ports should be widened with respect to the piston ring centering pins. The ports should have a safe margin of 2mm for the centering pin. The height of the transfer ports is based on the time-area of the exhaust port above the transfer port opening height. That is called Blow-down. The exhaust port has to evacuate the cylinder bore of burnt gasses before the transfers open, otherwise backflow will occur into the crankcase. That can cause a variety of dangerous problems like blown crank seals, chipped or burnt reeds, or in extreme circumstances a fire that can extend out of the carb. The angles of the transfers are important too. Generally speaking when the side angles direct the gasses to the intake side of the cylinder, or the roof angles are a steep angle 15-25 degrees), the porting will be better for trail-riding. When the side angles direct the gasses to the center of the cylinder and the roof angles are nearly flat (0-5 degrees), the porting will be better suited to drag or lake racing.


    Making Ports Smaller

    Ports are purposely made smaller for several reasons. One or more of the ports could have been designed too big, or a well-meaning tuner may have been overzealous, or a customer may have asked for more that he could handle. There are performance gains to be had from smaller ports, for high altitude compensation or for more punch for trail and snowcross riding. Simply using a thinner base gasket or by tunring-down the cylinder base on a lathe. Cometic Gasket Co. in Mentor Ohio makes graded gaskets from .25 to 1.5mm and even custom base plates for stroker engines. (www.cometic.com) Another method is by welding the perimeter of the port, although that entails replating the bore. Transfer and intake ports can be made smaller with the use of epoxy. Brand name products like DURO Master Mend or Weld-Stick are chemical resistant, easy to mold to fit, and can withstand temperatures of 400F. Master Mend is a liquid product and Weld-Stick is a semi-dry putty material. The epoxy can be applied to the roof of the ports to retard the timing and reduce the duration. It can be applied to the sides of the transfers to reduce the time-area, and it can be applied to the transfer ducts to boost the primary compression ratio (crankcase volume).

    Porting for Big Bores

    WISECO offers big bore piston kits for most popular snowmobiles. (www.wiseco.com) The average increase in displacement is 50cc per cylinder. This requires that the cylinder be over-bored 4-8mm. Because the ports enter the cylinder bore at angles, when the bore size is increased all the ports drop in height. The steeper the port angles the greater the port height will drop. Lower port heights mean retarded timing and reduced duration. The exhaust port gets narrower and the transfers get wider. A larger displacement cylinder will require more port-time-area. Normally the exhaust port needs to be raised higher than stock to compensate for the compression ratio. If you're adding a set of performance pipes at the same time as the big bore, you'll need to compensate the port timing to get the best gains from the pipes. It's a complicated thing. Sometimes tuners use thicker base gaskets to compensate for big bores, but ideally the port-time-area needs to be calculated before any serious porting changes are made. If you are strictly trail riding at high altitude, you can just have the cylinders bored and replated because the porting will inherently change to suit that type of application.

    Big Bore Specs Link (coming soon!)

    Computer Design Software

    The best-kept secret in high performance tuning is the use of computer design software. These products became popular about six years ago when Tom Turner adapted the SAE programming code and added in his own empirical data from his career as a motorcycle drag racer and tuner. Tom's products are named TSR software (www.tsrsoftware.com) and available in MS-DOS format for PCs. The programs cover individual engine components. The most popular program for porting is PORTTIME 2000 and it sells for $200. It features target specs for all sorts of vehicles including snowmobiles. Basically a tuner types in engine spec dimensions like the bore and stroke plus all the individual port measurements. The program runs mathematical calculations in order to provide a simulation of how the porting changes will affect the engine's powerband. TSR's programs will get a tuner 90% to the engines potential. The next level of programs includes 1D and 3D gas dynamics simulators. Dynomation is a 1D simulator that sells for about $500 (www.audietech.com). It enables tuners to combine all the engine components together to simulate dyno runs on the computer so they can save time machining metal and swapping parts on actual dyno runs. Dr. Gordon Blair programmed the 3D simulator named Virtual Two-Stroke, the most well know two-stroke engine researcher. His program is marketed through Optimum (www.optimum-power.com) through lease programs. Priced at $12,000 a year, it's intended for use by engine manufacturers.
    tks for the posting and yr effort.

     

     
  42. #42
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    [¯*林德金 超級摩托 飆車隊 *¯]
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    if you plan to race yr bike in race track, have plently of $ to burnt and later change the engine, you can go ahead., but if ur bike is for casual racing and commute daily. don't do anything, don't even bother to change yr exhaust or carb, your performance may only last a while, later, it will become worst, just like viagra, leave it as stock. anyway, stock bike performance not that bad rite?

  44. #44
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    Been there done that! Don't waste your time.

    Unless you are riding a stock race 2 stroke machine, know what you're doing and don't want to pay money to all the good companies that make after market race upgrades for the engine - go port your engine.

    2 stoke engine require skill in the 'black arts', the combi of ignition timing, bore stroke, port, exhast system, fuel mix, power valve timing, even the the design of the reed cage affects the response of the engine.

    Oh go ahead and do it too if all you need is top end power and the CDI or engine mangagement unit is unrestricted and has optimum ignition timing. Also don't forget to upgrade the carb, along with the exhaust to handle the increase air fuel volume. It has worked quite well for achieving top speed.

    Most mechs out there will slap on after market exhaust systems, get a rejet kit for the carb, open the exhaust port abit, and that's it. Maybe get a unrestricted race type CDI for the bike too.

    After all that power upgrades, the power response might be too raw to be used and the high revs going to kill the piston and rings in a few hours of use.

    ITS BETTER TO BURN OUT THEN TO FADE AWAY!

  45. #45
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    Originally posted by nickspeedsg@Jan 16 2005, 11:17 PM
    Been there done that! Don't waste your time.

    Unless you are riding a stock race 2 stroke machine, know what you're doing and don't want to pay money to all the good companies that make after market race upgrades for the engine - go port your engine.

    2 stoke engine require skill in the 'black arts', the combi of ignition timing, bore stroke, port, exhast system, fuel mix, power valve timing, even the the design of the reed cage affects the response of the engine.

    Oh go ahead and do it too if all you need is top end power and the CDI or engine mangagement unit is unrestricted and has optimum ignition timing. Also don't forget to upgrade the carb, along with the exhaust to handle the increase air fuel volume. It has worked quite well for achieving top speed.

    Most mechs out there will slap on after market exhaust systems, get a rejet kit for the carb, open the exhaust port abit, and that's it. Maybe get a unrestricted race type CDI for the bike too.

    After all that power upgrades, the power response might be too raw to be used and the high revs going to kill the piston and rings in a few hours of use.

    I wonder how many of those talking here back in 2003 is still alive n walking straight....!!??
    Wait till I achieve my objective.... I will be back with a more powerful engine and a more sexy bike......

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    Quote Originally Posted by dannis View Post
    I wonder how many of those talking here back in 2003 is still alive n walking straight....!!??

    yes 4 yrs already.

    [¯*林德金 超級摩托 飆車隊 *¯]
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  47. #47
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    chin sia...
    lolz
    (Mar05) Honda SP 150 FR9470B
    (Nov05) Kawasaki KRR 150 FU8637D
    (Sep06) Suzuki GSX400 FK7652
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  48. #48
    AH^_^PEK^_^LAH
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    Originally posted by [3]`chUn@Dec 25 2005, 02:21 PM
    chin sia...
    lolz
    wah ???
    Agraphix customise sticker
    ------www.agraphix.com.sg-----
    currently flowers sticker are 4 by 4 cm
    if any ppl need any odd size plz pm me
    ride safe thanks

  49. #49
    chanhianyong
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    Originally posted by Andy@Jan 19 2003, 04:38 PM
    anyone know which shop is doing the porting works for motorshops? i believe motorshops also bring the engine down to some particular ppl to do porting right?

  50. #50
    Mr.X1
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    Good information from the original poster and some others

    I am planning on getting a used 2 stroke bike, and doing some minor porting of the exhaust port, and making a daytona piston cut, which advances the gas intake.
    Also I have a 0.40 head mill planned, then re-shaping the combustion dome to a flatter one.

    When I am finished with all the porting, the ground parts will be highly polished to avoid carbon deposits from sticking.

    A possible gear change is done too, to increase the added low end performance. I am not looking for a top end "high speed" bike. Only a quick street bike.

    Lots of dangerous riders in thailand, so a bike that will pull away will help

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